Auto-Carto II

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography

September 21 - 25, 1975

Reston, Virginia


This second conference on automation in cartography was sponsored by the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of the Census. William B. Overstreet, President of the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, and Vincent P. Barabba, Director of the Bureau of the Census, had official responsibility for the conference and coordinated activities between the two organizations. Chairman of the Conference was Robert T. Aangeenbrug, former visiting scholar at the Bureau of the Census from the Department of Geography of the University of Kansas. Executive Secretary for the conference was John C. Kavaliunas of the Center for Census Use Studies, U.S. Bureau of the Census. Special appreciation is given to the following Census Bureau staff for their assistance during the Symposium: Ann Casey (Data User Services Division), Marie Dooms (Center for Census Use Studies), Michael Glascoe (Center for Census Use Studies), and Sharon Gongwer Johns (Center for Census Use Studies).

Table of Contents


Front Page ii
Title Page iii
Foreword iv
Preface v
Contents vi
Opening Remarks 1
Charge to the Conference 3
Welcoming Remarks 7
Map Design 9
A Challenge to Cartographers 15
Visions of Maps and Graphs 2
General Session Papers  
  Introduction 38
  A Geographic and Cartographic Program for the 1980 Census 41
  Contemporary Statistical Maps: Evidence of Spatial and Graphic Ignorance 51
  Topological Principles in Cartography 61
  Mathematical Map Models 66
  Graphical Methods for Presenting Statistical Data: Progress and Problems 74
  The Challenge of Maps for the Visually Handicapped 91
  Map Generalization: Theory, Practice and Economics 99
Panel Discussion on Experiences in Federal Automated Cartography  
  Introduction 114
  Introductory Remarks 116
  Decision Day for Automating 119
  Automated Cartography at the U.S. Bureau of the Census 123
  An Advanced Mapping System for the Soil Conservation Service 126
  Automated Cartography in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 129
Seminar on Statistical Mapping  
  Introduction 134
  Statistical Accuracy and Map Enhancement in Choroplethic Mapping 136
  Undergeneralization and Figure-ground Relationships in Statistical Mapping 149
  The Comparative Atlas of America's Twenty Largest Metropolitan Regions 155
  The Urban Atlas Project: Historical and Cartographic Review 162
Seminar on Map Reading and Perception  
  Introduction 170
  Census Statistical Mapping and the Users 175
  Cognition in Cartography 183
  An Analysis of Approaches in Map Design 194
  Current Research in Tactual Cartography 204
  The Optimal Thematic Map Reading Procedure: Some Clues Provided by Eye Movement Recordings 214
  The Map in the Mind's Eye 225
  Psychophysical Research and Map Reading Analysis 233
  In Pursuit of the Map User 238
Seminar on Uses of Color  
  Introduction 268
  The Uses of Color 270
  The Selection of Color for the U.S.S.R. Agricultural Atlas 277
  Conflicting Goals in Choosing Colors for Quantitative Maps 286
  The Organization of Color on Two-variable Maps 289
Seminar on Automation in Cartography: Small Systems  
  Introduction 296
  Small Automated Cartographic Systems 298
  Interactive Cartography at the Experimental Cartography Unit 303
  The Approach to Automated Cartography: Topographic Data Banks in Canada 318
  Computer-Assisted Thematic Mapping with a Dedicated Minicomputer 322
Seminar on Automation in Cartography: Software  
  Introduction 332
  Data Files for Computerized Cartography From the U.S. Census Bureau 335
  Neighborhood Computations for Large Sets of Data Points 337
  Topological Information Systems for Geographic Representation 346
  Contouring Algorithms 352
Seminar on Land Use Mapping  
  Introduction 362
  Land Unit Mapping with the Wildland Resource Information System 367
  The Land Use Map in British Local Planning 378
  Tax Maps and Their Land Use Implications 381
  Multi-Dimensional Maps Through Digital Image Processing 386
  Land Oriented Water Resources Data System in New Jersey 388
Seminar on Interactive Map Editing  
  Introduction 412
  Interactive Cartography 415
  Map Editing Using a Topological Access System 422
  ODIS vs. CUE: A Look at DIME File Maintenance 430
  An Interactive GBF Creation and Computer Mapping System 448
Seminar on Urban Information Systems  
  Introduction 454
  Analytical Maps for School Locational Planning 457
  Computer Mapping and Its Impact on Kansas City, Kansas and Wyandotte County 469
  Computer-Assisted Information Systems and Computer-Assisted Cartography:
Tools or Tinker Toys of Urban Governance
  Geologic Information in a Computer Mapping System for Land Use Planning 491
  The ZIPSTAN Standardization System 496
  The Congruence Between U.S. Census DIME Technology and Observed Local
Operating Agency Geographic Interests and Needs
Seminar on Data Structures  
  Introduction 506
  A Theory of the Cartographic Line 508
  Applications of Lattice Theory to Automated Coding and Decoding 519
  Digital Cartographic Data Base: Preliminary Description 523
Seminar on Automation in Cartography: International Developments  
  Introduction 540
  Computer Graphics in Urban and Regional Planning: Some Development Projects in Scandanavia 542
  Automation of Cartography at the Mexican Studies Commission for the National Territory 550
  Brazilian Cartography 556
  Auto Carto II Staff and Committees 572
  Auto Carto II Participants 574
  Index: Author and Title 608

This report is available online in Portable Document Format (PDF). If you do not have the Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader, it is available for free download from Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Download the report (PDF, 54.4 MB)

Document Accessibility: Adobe Systems Incorporated has information about PDFs and the visually impaired. This information provides tools to help make PDF files accessible. These tools convert Adobe PDF documents into HTML or ASCII text, which then can be read by a number of common screen-reading programs that synthesize text as audible speech. In addition, an accessible version of Adobe Reader 8.0 for Windows (English only), which contains support for screen readers, is available. These tools and the accessible reader may be obtained free from Adobe at Adobe Access.