Auto-Carto VIII

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography

March 29 - April 3, 1987

Baltimore, Maryland


This volume contains the prepublished papers from the Eighth Inter national Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography. The printed papers serve the registrants and speakers during the meeting, but they also serve as a permanent record of the state of knowledge in 1987.

This volume contains the overwhelming majority of the papers to be presented at AUTO-CARTO 8. Papers are ordered in the volume in the order of presentation during the week, allowing for the overlapping of concurrent sessions. The author index provides alternate access.

The Director and Program Committee of AUTO-CARTO 8 are deeply grateful to each author and their support staff who made this volume possible. Without their effort, cooperation and attention to detail, the whole could not be assembled from so many parts.

The papers presented in this volume and at the symposium were selected from a large pool of abstracts. The authors of all the 160 abstracts submitted deserve thanks, particularly those whose proposals were not selected. There is a difficult problem involved in selection of papers for an event as diverse as AUTO-CARTO 8. To some extent, all persons working in the field should have access to the forum to share their ideas. The conventions operated on that principle turn into massive concurrent programs with no coherence and espirit. Over the history of AUTO-CARTOs, there has been increasing attention to a review process to ensure a coherent focus at the event. The Director wishes to thank the members of the Program Committee and others colleagues who assisted in this task. As the papers arrived, the quality seems to equal the standards of any previous AUTO -CARTO.

Table of Contents


Title Page  

Author Index

Basic requirements of digital systems  
  Multi-purpose Land Information Systems: Technical, Economic and Institutional Issues 1
  The User Profile for Digital Cartographic Data 12
  Overlay Processing in Spatial Information Systems 16
  Fundamental Principles of Geographic Information Systems 32
Models of terrain  
  An Adaptive Methodology for Automated Relief Generalization 42
  Systematic Selection of Very Important Points (VIP) from Digital Terrain Models for Constructing Triangular Irregular Networks 50
  Fitting a Triangulation to Contour Lines 57
  Measuring the Dimension of Surfaces: A Review and Appraisal of Different Methods 68
Numerical representation for coordinate data  
  Stability of Map Topology and Robustness of Map Geometry 78
  HIPPARCHUS Geopositioning Model: An Overview 87
  A Polygon Overlay System in Prolog 97
  Coordinate Transformations in Map Digitizing 107
Analytical modelling applications  
  A Spatial Decision Support System for Locational Planning: Design, Implementation and Operation 112
  Realistic Flow Analysis Using a Simple Network Model 122
  A Geographic Information System Utilizing the Triangulated Irregular Network as a Basis for Hydrologic Modeling 129
  Methods and Applications in Surface Depression Analysis 137
Models of spatial error  
  Multiple Sources of Spatial Variation and How to Deal with Them 145
  Mapping the Spatial Variability of Soils: A Cartographer's Approach 155
  A Model of Error for Choropleth Maps, with Applications to Geographic Information Systems 165
  Uncertainties in Land Information Systems Databases 175
Algorithms for spatial search or query  
  Spatial Ordering of Voronoi Networks and their Uses in Terrain Database Management 185
  The Use of Range-tree Spatial Indexing to Speed GIS Data Retrieval 195
  Formatting Geographic Data to Enhance Manipulability 201
Generalization and scale changing  
  How to Survive on a Single Detailed Database 211
  Optimum Point Density and Compaction Rates for the Representation of Geographic Lines 221
  The psi-s Plot: A Useful Representation for Digital Cartographic Lines 231
  Perfecting Automatic Line Drawing 241
TIGER developments  
  The TIGER Structure 249
  Topology in the TIGER File 258
  Maintenance of Geographic Structure Files at the Bureau of the Census 264
  Estimating Production Parameters for Large Volume Automated Mapping on a Raster Plotter 270
Database architecture  
  Desirable Characteristics of a Spatial Database Management System 278
  TIGRIS: Topologically Integrated Geographic Information System 282
  An Integrated DBMS Approach for Geographic Information Systems 292
  Developing a DBMS for Geographic Information: A Review 302
  Geographic Information Processing in the PROBE Database System 316
  Geographic Information Processing Using a SQL-based Query Language 326
  An Information System for Geosciences: Design Considerations 336
  Attribute Handling for Geographic Information Systems 346
  A Geographic Database System 356
  The dbmap System 363
  Design and Implementation of Microcomputer Based Water Resources Decision Support Systems 370
Future directions  
  Trends in Hardware for Geographic Information Systems 380
  The Misguided Evolution of Future Mapping Technology 386
  Human Interface Requirements for Vehicle Navigation Aids 396
Educational software  
  Enhancement and Testing of a Microcomputer-based GIS for University Instruction 403
  An Integrated PC Based GIS for Instruction and Research 411
  IDRISI: A Collective Geographic Analysis System Project 421
  Classless Choropleth Mapping with Millions of Colors: A Developmental System 431
  Computer-assisted Terrain Analysis on a Microcomputer 437
Applications projects  
  Results of the Dane County Land Records Project 445
  The Display of Boundary Information: A Challenge in Map Design in an Automated Production System 456
  Automatic Map Inset Determination 466
  Assessing Community Vulnerability to Hazardous Materials with a Geographic Information System 471
  Improvement of GBF/DIME File Coordinates in a Geobased Information System by Various Transformation Methods and "Rubbersheeting" Based on Triangulation 481
  Fighting Spruce Budworm with a GIS 492
  Automation of Flood Hazard Mapping by the Federal Emergency Management Agency 500
Expert systems  
  Expert Systems Applied to Problems in Geographic Information Systems: Introduction, Review and Prospects 510
  The Expert Geographic Knowledge System: Applying Logical Rules to Geographical Information 520
  Are Cartographic Expert Systems Possible? 530
  Expert System Interface to a Geographic Information System 535
Vehicle navigation and location  
  Automobile Navigation in the Past, Present and Future 542
  Digital Map Requirements of Vehicle Navigation 552
  On Giving and Receiving Directions: Cartographic and Cognitive Issues 562
  Research into Electronic Maps and Automatic Vehicle Location 572
  A Relational Database Model for an AVL System and an Expert System for Optimal Route Selection 584
  The Map-environment Interface: Surrogate Travel by Videodisc (abstract) 594
  The BBC Domesday Project: A Nation-wide CIS for $4448 595
Mixed technical issues (poster session)  
  Acquiring Approximate Spatial Representations of Spatial Relations: Theory and Results of Tests 604
  Accessing Large Spatial Databases via Microcomputer 623
  A General Approach to Map Conflation 630
  Raster and Vector Processing for Scanned Linework 640
  Recursive Approximation of Topographic Data Using Quadtrees and Orthogonal Polynomials 650
  Cartographic Data Entry through Automatic Feature Tracking 660
  The Inward Spiral Method: An Improved TIN Generation Technique and Data Structure for Land Planning Applications 670
  Scale-based Simulation of Topography 680
Algorithms for cartographic design  
  An Algorithm for Locating Candidate Labeling Boxes within a Polygon 689
  Practical Experience with a Map Label Placement Algorithm 701
  Automatic Recognition and Resolution of Spatial Conflicts in Cartographic Symbolisation 709
  Calculating Bisector Skeletons Using a Thiessen Data Structure 719
Database maintenance  
  Area Matching in Raster Mode Updating 725
  Polygonization and Topological Editing at the Bureau of the Census 731
  WYSIWYG Digitizing: Real Time Geometric Correction and Topological Encoding 739
  Softcopy Methods of Cartographic Database Maintenance 744
  Testing a Prototype Spatial Data Exchange Format - The Federal Geographic Exchange Format Experience (abstract) 753
  Integrating Multiple Data Representations for Spatial Databases 754

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